Acceptable topics include anatomy, physiology, genetics, behavior, natural history, dispersal, distribution, evolution, and systematics, but this list is not comprehensive. The largest remaining population of the species spawns and rears in the Little Colorado River in Grand Canyon. It is associated with freshwater habitat. 2008), and extinction rates are expected to increase (Burkhead 2012). The Southwestern Association of Naturalists was founded in May 1953 to promote the field study of plants and animals (living The humpback chub, Gila cypha,is a member of the minnow family which can grow quite large reaching lengths up to 480 mm, or (about 19 inches long) and is endemic to the Colorado River Basin. ... Reproduction Maturity Spawning Spawning aggregation Fecundity Eggs Egg development. 2016). The general temperature thresholds for the successful growth and reproduction of Humpback Chub were found to be 12°C and 16°C, respectively (Hamman 1982). Despite the capture of 47 untagged fish, a data collection error in May 2017 did not allow for the inclusion of the untagged fish in the abundance estimate (Figure 2). Havasu Creek is much warmer and more thermally suitable for Humpback Chub than the Colorado River in Grand Canyon is, and it is similar to the LCR (Voichick and Wright 2007). Determining abundances of many nonnative species in the LCR is difficult because they are not easily captured using hoop-nets. Canyon, serves as the only known site of reproduction and recruitment for humpback chub (Kaeding and Zimmerman 1983, Maddux et al. Our study demonstrates the successful establishment of a reproducing population of an endangered “large‐river” fish in a smaller tributary through translocations. The top model selected by using AIC, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, North American Journal of Fisheries Management, Marine and Coastal Fisheries: Dynamics, Management, and Ecosystem Science, orcid.org/https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4402-638X, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use, Evaluating the reintroduction potential of Lahontan Cutthroat Trout in Fallen Leaf Lake, California, An occupancy‐based quantification of the highly imperiled status of desert fishes of the southwestern United States, Extinction rates in North American freshwater fishes, 1900–2010, Model selection and multimodel inference: a practical information‐theoretic approach, Multimodel inference: understanding AIC and BIC in model selection, Nonlethal detection of Asian fish tapeworm in the federally endangered Humpback Chub using a molecular screening tool, A survey of the fishes, aquatic invertebrates and aquatic plants of the Colorado River and selected tributaries from Lee Ferry to Separation Rapids, The influence of hydrological and biotic processes on Brown Trout (, Identifying correlates of success and failure of native freshwater fish reintroductions, Flow management and fish density regulate salmonid recruitment and adult size in tailwaters across western North America. Isolated populations, which are valuable to conservation by provision of redundancy and often protected from invasions, are no less vulnerable than fragmented source populations are (Fausch et al. As an example of the successful translocation of an endangered species that demonstrates the potential importance of tributaries in the recovery of large‐river fishes, our study may help to inform future recovery planning. Upon arrival at the release site, we tempered the water in the coolers with water from Havasu Creek for approximately 1 h, to within 1°C of the temperature in Havasu Creek, to also more closely match other unmeasured water quality parameters. However, juvenile humpback chub do not yet have these distinctive humps; the fish start developing them at three to four years of age. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. Juvenile Humpback Chub were 2008; Whiting et al. Individuals can grow to 38.0 cm. While we must recognize recent exceptions, such as the resurgence of native fishes in much of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon (Kegerries et al., in press), climate change is expected to further constrain streamflow (Udall and Overpeck 2017), which could accelerate the replacement of native fishes by nonnative species (Ruhí et al. Humpback chub population decline observed in the late 1990s and early 2000s coincided with cooler water temperatures and higher salmonid, abundances. The lower Humpback chub - Also a member of the minnow family (Cyprinidae), the humpback chub Gila cypha is one of several species of the genus Gila found in warm-water reaches of the Colorado River and its tributaries. Once captured, we held the Humpback Chub temporarily (generally 2–4 d) in net pens in the LCR, transferred them to coolers, and transported them to the canyon rim via helicopter for transfer to a hatchery via truck. Monitoring is also critical to the maintenance of genetic diversity and avoidance of bottlenecks, which may ultimately compromise the long‐term persistence of an isolated, translocated population (Williams et al. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. The juvenile Humpback Chub were then weighed, measured, and internally tagged with 134.2‐kHz, 12.5‐mm passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. (2013) that was meant to decrease risk to the donor population or a change in the release location for the 2015 and 2016 cohorts could also have limited apparent survival. The population estimates were generated by using closed‐population Huggin's mark–recapture models in Program MARK (White 2008). Therefore, the LCR is a significantly important stream for the endangered humpback chub across the range of the species. Dam and reservoir constructions throughout the Colorado River basin have facilitated the proliferation of lentic nonnative fishes that have been introduced for sport fishing by stabilizing the historical disturbance regime that is characteristic of the rivers that flow through arid lands (Olden et al. 2015b) and ultimately a 2014 fire and subsequent flooding extirpated Humpback Chub from Shinumo Creek (B. D. Healy and E. C. Omana‐Smith, personal observations; National Park Service, unpublished data). Age/Size Growth Length-weight Length-length Length-frequencies Morphometrics Morphology … It is listed as endangered by IUCN. humpback chub grow older and larger, they move to the faster, muddier water of the Colorado River — reclaiming their historic territory. Declining streamflow, which is exacerbated by the ongoing and projected effects of climate change (McHugh et al. 2017; Rogowski et al. The Humpback Chub Gila cypha, a large-bodied, endangered cyprinid endemic to the Colorado River basin, is in decline throughout most of its range due largely to anthropogenic factors. For example, Yackulic et al. 2012). The fish is very streamlined, with a thin c… 2013). Humpback chub spawn in the Little Colorado River where warm water and suitable spawning habitat is available, while water released from Glen Canyon Dam in the Colorado River is too cold for successful reproduction. 2016). These spawning fish were likely minimum age‐2 fish, based on observed growth rates and length‐frequency histograms (Figure 2). Page, L.M. A change to larval collections following recommendations in Pine et al. 2000). Humpback chub live as long as 30 years or more and reach lengths of up to 20 inches (500 mm). Gorman OT, Stone DM. The humpback chub, Gila cypha,is a member of the minnow family which can grow quite large reaching lengths up to 480 mm, or (about 19 inches long) and is endemic to the Colorado River Basin. 2014; Spurgeon et al. During rare periods of sustained high Colorado River flows, such as those that occur during the Glen Canyon Dam discharges that are meant to transfer water to Lake Mead beginning in spring of 2011 (“equalization flows”), these lower cascades may be inundated and allow for fish passage (Trammell et al. Humpback chub live in discrete, rocky, canyon-bound river reaches characterized by swift currents in portions of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona. Salmonids that are present in the Colorado River and are known to prey upon or potentially compete with Humpback Chub (Marsh and Douglas 1997; Yard et al. Given the limited suitable habitat in the degraded segments of many large rivers, this suggests that tributaries in protected areas may provide important opportunities for habitat conservation and endangered fish recovery (Spurgeon et al. Reproduction is the process in which an organism is produced by a parent. To assess the effect of fish size on survival and capture probability in Havasu Creek, the TL of individual fish at the time of release, or first encounter for nontranslocated fish, was incorporated into the models as an individual covariate on survival and/or capture probability (Table 2). 2002; Kominoski et al. JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. Large, short‐lived monsoonal floods that exceed 20 m3/s occur in Havasu Creek on an annual basis, and the floods occasionally exceed 300 m3/s, primarily during the summer months (USGS data, gauge 09404115). Like the Colorado pikeminnow and bonytail, the humpback chub is a member of the minnow family. Reproduction has been restricted to the Little Colorado River because of changes in the mainstem Colorado River after the completion of Glen Canyon Dam. The minimum and median size of the males and females that were in spawning condition was 137 and 156 mm TL, and 200 and 217 mm TL, respectively. 2014; Spurgeon et al. As such, decreasing upriver water temperatures should be expected to result in less-favorable conditions for adult reproduction and survival of newly hatched humpback chub. The Association holds an annual meeting and publishes The Southwestern Naturalist. Translocation of Humpback Chub into tributary streams of the Colorado River: implications for conservation of large‐river fishes, Overriding effects of species‐specific turbidity thresholds on hoop‐net catch rates of native fishes in the Little Colorado River, Arizona, Humpback Chub translocation to Havasu Creek, Grand Canyon National Park: implementation and monitoring plan, The twenty‐first century Colorado River hot drought and implications for the future, Long term and experimental management plan for the Glen Canyon Dam, environmental impact statement and decision notice, Final biological opinion on the operation of Glen Canyon Dam including high flow experiments and non‐native fish control, Species status assessment for the Humpback Chub (Gila cypha), Humpback Chub (Gila cypha) 5‐year review: summary and evaluation, Research and implementation plan for establishing a second population of Humpback Chub in Grand Canyon, Evidence of reproduction by Humpback Chub in a warm spring of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Long‐term monitoring of an endangered desert fish and factors influencing population dynamics, Population expansion of Humpback Chub in western Grand Canyon and hypothesized mechanisms, Translocation of stream‐dwelling salmonids in headwaters: insights from a 15‐year reintroduction experience, Water‐temperature data for the Colorado River and tributaries between Glen Canyon Dam and Spencer Canyon, northern Arizona, 1988–2005, Effects of water temperature and fish size on predation vulnerability of juvenile Humpback Chub to Rainbow Trout and Brown Trout, Effects of turbidity on predation vulnerability of juvenile Humpback Chub to Rainbow and Brown trout, A laboratory evaluation of tagging‐related mortality and tag loss in juvenile Humpback Chub, Closed population estimation models and their extensions in Program MARK, Program MARK: survival estimation from populations of marked animals, Macroinvertebrate prey availability and food web dynamics of nonnative trout in a Colorado River tributary, Grand Canyon, American Fisheries Society guidelines for introductions of threatened and endangered fishes, A quantitative life history of endangered Humpback Chub that spawn in the Little Colorado River: variation in movement, growth, and survival, Trout piscivory in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon: effects of turbidity, temperature, and fish prey availability. members. 2015b; Laub et al. Indeed, the presence of nonnative fishes in translocation sites is a common cause of failure (Al‐Chokhachy et al. Translocations, defined herein as the human‐assisted movement of individuals from a source population to other waters within their historical range, are prevalent in recovery plans for endangered fishes. Size: Adult humpback chub generally range in total length from 230 mm to around 400 mm. 2012). The species inhabits whitewater … 2014; Healy et al. 2018), thereby partially fulfilling the conservation goals for the species (USFWS 2011). and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. (1996), severe floods could limit the abundance of Humpback Chub. Trophic relationships of nonnative Brown Trout, Persistence and stability of fish and invertebrate assemblages in a repeatedly disturbed Sonoran Desert stream, When the blue‐green waters turn red: historical flooding in Havasu Creek, Arizona, The one‐migrant‐per‐generation rule in conservation and management, Life history theory predicts fish assemblage response to hydrologic regimes, Translocation as a tool for conserving imperiled fishes: experiences in western United States. We assumed that Humpback Chub reproduction was either low or nonexistent prior to the translocations due to the absence of juvenile or subadult age‐classes during our pretranslocation surveys (Trammell et al. Considering only Humpback Chubs captured during the first netting pass to avoid double counting during a sampling occasion, captures of untagged fish increased from seven, prior to the first translocation, to 110 in May of 2018 (Figure 2).