Phragmoplast produces new cross-walls after cell division. Some lower members have naked pyrenoid like bodies. 2. Group 3 consists of Euglenophyta and Dinophyta. o cell wall composition and structure. d. Reserve food is laminarin (polysaccha­ride), manitol (alcohol) and fats. Algae, singular alga, members of a group of predominantly aquatic photosynthetic organisms of the kingdom Protista.Algae have many types of life cycles, and they range in size from microscopic Micromonas species to giant kelps that reach 60 metres (200 feet) in length. In telophase, the interzonal spindle collapses; phycoplast produces the new cross wall in cell division. Eukaryotic algae with chloroplast surrounded only by one membrane of chloro­plast endoplasmic reticulum. 3 0 obj In addition, other pigments like c-phycocyanin, chloro­phyll a, d, carotene and xanthophylls are also present. Class. e.g., Batrachospermum, Lemanea etc. vii. It takes place by all the three means vegetative, asexual and sexual (isogamous type). c. Cells contain many discoid chro­matophores. 4. Prymnesiophyta (haptophytes): haptonema, chlorophyll a, c1 and c2, fuco- xanthin; two whiplash flagella; scales com­mon outside cell; storage product chryso­laminarin is found in vesicles in cytoplasm. Cell wall is composed of cellulose along with alginic and fucinic acid. The pyrenoid projects from the inner face of the plastid on a narrow stalk and in the cytoplasm are surrounded by flat plates of the unidentified photosynthate. 3. Many filamentous members possess specialized cells of disputed function (supposed to be the centre of N2 fixa­tion) known as heterocyst. Diadinoxanthin and β-hexanoyl fuco­xanthin also occur in the group. the science of algae. The epicone and hypocone are normal­ly divided into a number of thecal plates. 7. e. Flagella. Eukaryotic algae with chloroplast surrounded by one membrane of chloroplast endoplasmic reticulum. • Thus, Phycology or algology is the study of the algae (singular, alga). 1. 4. The cells are eukaryotic and consist of two halves, epitheca and hypotheca; which are bilaterally or radially sym­metrical. e.g., Polysiphonia etc. a. Presence of Chlorophyll a and d, Phycobiliproteins includes r-phyco- cyanin, allophycocyanin and three forms of phycoerythrins (b, r and c). Klebsormidiales. Chloroplasts have chlorophyll a, c1 and c2 with fucoxanthin as the major carotenoid. iv. Rhodymeniaies e.g., Rhodymenia, Champia. Gigertinales. Flagellar root consisting of a broad band of microtubules and a second smaller microtubular root. The algae have endosymbiotic blue-green algae (BGA) in the cytoplasm instead of chloro­plasts. h. Reproduction. Cladophorales. Motile cells asymmetrical, two flagella attached in a lateral position in cell. 3. Class. One is whiplash and other one is tinsel type. e. Flagella are two, unequal in length and are situated anteriorly. B. classification of algae oilgae oil from algae. Multilayered structure (MLS) is absent. Disclaimer Copyright, Share Your Knowledge 2. 5. Classification of Algae. Chloroplast endoplasmic reticulum usu­ally absent. <> Basically unicel­lular algae. Phragmoplast produces new cross-wall after cell division. 1. 'algae classification by lee howtogetitincanada com june 6th, 2018 - fri 11 may 2018 17 39 00 gmt algae classification by lee pdf read and download algae classification by lee free ebooks in pdf format nwu potchefstroom campus''algae classification by lee 198 74 57 167 2. classification of algae oilgae oil from algae. e.g., Corallina, Melobesia etc. Cutleriales. The class Charophyceae is further divided into 4 orders: 1. The epicone and hypocone are normally divided into a number of thecal plates. 4. 3. 1.1 ClASSIFICAtIon The classification of algae is complex and somewhat controversial, especially concerning the blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria), which are sometimes known as blue-green bacteria or Cyanophyta and sometimes included in the Chlorophyta. The class Ulvophyceae is further divided into 6 orders: 3. e.g., Euglena, Trachelo- monas, Phacus etc. These topics are not covered in … 4. c. Pyrenoid-like bodies are present but they are independent of chromato­phores. Sporochnales e.g., Carpomitra, Sporochnus. G. Class. c. Chromatophores have naked pyrenoid- like bodies. Group 1: Prokaryotes. Common genera: Cyathomonas, Chilomonas etc. The class has been divided into five (5) orders: i. Chroococcales e.g., Gloeocapsa, Chroo- coccus. Eukaryotic algae with chloroplast surrounded by two membranes of chloroplast endoplasmic reticulum. Flagellation: The type, number and position of flagella are important basis for separation of different … Chlorophyll a and c2 are present in the chloroplasts, with peridinin and neo- peridinin being the main carotenoids. 8. 4. Choloroplast endoplasmic reticulum present. Division. 7. 5. g. Sexual reproduction ranges from isogamy to oogamy. Dinophysiales e.g., Dinophysis, Phalacroma. b. the distribution and ecological factors of aerial algae. Chrysosphaerales e.g., Chrysosphaera. f. Reproduction takes place by vegetative, asexual and sexual methods. algae wikipedia. Cell wall is pectic and silicified and ornamented variously. The cells are surrounded by a rigid two- part box-like cell wall (upper part is epitheca and lower part is hypotheca), composed of silica, called the frustule. Eukaryotic algae with chloroplast sur­rounded only by the two membranes of the chloroplast envelope. e.g., Laminaria, Chorda etc. The chloroplast contains chlorophylls a, c1 and c2 with the major carotenoid being the golden-brown fucoxanthin. e. Storage food is floridean starch, a polysaccharide. According to R.E. The principal pigments are chlorophylls a (green), c-phycocyanin (blue) and c-phycoerythrin (red). Yeast: Origin, Reproduction, Life Cycle and Growth Requirements | Industrial Microbiology, How is Bread Made Step by Step? Division. Division. Since Linnaeus (1753) published “Species Plantarum” and classified algae. d. The reserve food is crysolaminarin and lucosin. 5. The freshwater red algal genus Sheathia contains species with heterocortication (both bulbous and cylindrical cells covering the main axis) and homocortication (only cylindrical cells). 7. Cells have numerous discoid chromatophores without pyrenoid. Eustigmatophyta: eye-spot large and outside chloroplast; chlorophyll a; posterior whiplash flagellum (commonly reduced) and anterior tinsel flagellum. It takes place by vege­tative and sexual means. However, since blue-green algae are prokaryotes, they are not currently included under algae (because all algae are classified as eukaryotic organisms). Types of Algae Reproduction, Classification, Examples and Microscopy. 5. Common genera: Botrydium, Ophiocytium, Tribonema etc. 4. Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll a, β carotene with two major xanthophylls being violaxanthin and vaucheriaxan- thin. 3. iv. Scaly or naked flagellates with inter­zonal spindles those are persistent during cytokinesis. 4. TOS4. Eukaryotic algae with chloroplast sur­rounded by one membrane of chloroplast endo­plasmic reticulum. Share Your PDF File Division. Share Your Word File 2. Algae Classification By Lee [PDF] [EPUB] Algae Classification By Lee [PDF] [EPUB] Simple habit to get algae classification by lee the incredible sticker album from experienced author Why not The artifice is very easy if you acquire the folder right here. Cells are eukaryotic and cell wall is composed of pectic substance. v. Dinococcales e.g., Dinastridium, Dissodinium. %PDF-1.5 4. Robert Edward Lee (1999) classified the algae into four evolutionary groups, nine phyla and different classes. Amoeboid vegetative cells are mostly restricted in this group (and Xantho­phyceae). d. Pyrenoid-like bodies are present in some members. f. There is no motile stage in the members of this class. Flagella with fibrillar hairs in one row. 2. 12. 2. Anterior flagellum is commonly tinsel, whereas the posterior flagellum is naked. Flagella roots consists of 4 cruciately arranged microtubular roots and some­times a rhizoplast. Ectocarpales. Sexual reproduction is absent. classification of algae according to fritsch and lee. The main pigments are Chlorophyll a and e, β-carotene and xanthophylls. Corallinales. B. Flagellar arrangement. Cryptonemiales e.g., Gloeopeltis, Dumontia. Externally, the motile cells have near- radial symmetry. Dictyochophyceae (silicoflagellates): Golden brown algae, characte­rized by tentacles or rhizopodia on basi­cally amoeboid vegetative cells. 4. 4 0 obj Porphyridiales. Types of flagella, he classified the algae into eleven (11) classes. The main pigments are Chlorophyll a and e, β-carotene and xanthophylls. C. Class. Division. Many algologists (phycologists) have proposed different classification … Reserve food is laminarin (polysaccha­ride), manitol (alcohol) and fat. Pigments like chlorophyll a and the phycobiliproteins are present. The standard botanical classification system used (suffix) in the systematics of the algae: The brief outline of classification is given below: Algae that represent an intermediate position in the evolution of chloroplast; photosynthesis is carried out by modified endosymbiotic blue-green algae. Flagella inserted in the cell perpendi­cular to one another. iv. Zygote undergoes a dormant period; meiosis occurs when the zygote germi­nates. Cyanophyta (blue green algae): Chlorophyll a; phycobiliproteins. Class. Members of this group have endosymbi­otic cyanobacteria (cyanelles) in the cytoplasm instead of chloroplast. Division. Division. Common genera: Ochromonas, Paraphyso- monas, Dinobryon, Anthophysa etc. One membrane of chloroplast and endoplasmic reticulum. Division. The cyanobacteria are the only prokaryotic algae. Xanthophyceae (Heterokontae, yellow green algae): a. Group 3. 6. 5. Phylum. One photoreceptor as a swelling on the short flagellum. Most of the cyanelles in this phylum lack a wall and are surrounded by two mem­branes – the old food vesicle membrane of the cyanome (host) and the plasma membrane of the cyanelle. e. Sexual reproduction is rare and iso­gamous type only. Rhodophyta (red algae): Chlorophyll a and d; phycobiliproteins; no flagellated cells; storage product is floridean starch. Fucoxanthin is the dominant pigment, in addition to chlorophylls a, c and carotene. 3. algae by linda e graham goodreads. Anterior flagella is commonly tinsel, whereas the posterior flagella is naked. Phylum. 6. Common genera: Oxyrrhis, Heterocapsa, Peridinium, Ceratium, Amphinidium etc. What is the connecting substance between light reaction and dark reaction? Membrane-bound chromatophores are absent. e.g., Oedogonium, Oedocladium, Bulbochaete. 2. pdf optical classification of algae species with a glass. 9. 2. 'Algae Classification By Lee throni de June 2nd, 2018 - Algae Classification By Lee Algae Classification By Lee Title Ebooks Algae Classification By Lee Category Kindle and eBooks PDF Author unidentified''Algae June 21st, 2018 - ALGAE 2018 33 2 143 156 Published Online June 15 Han Sang Oh Sung Eun Lee Chae Seong Han Joon Kim Onyou Nam Seungbeom Seo 2. Ceramiales e.g., Polysiphonia, Ceramium. Motile cells are with radial or near- radial external symmetry. c. Pigments. (b) Chloro­plast surrounded by one membrane of chloro­plast endoplasmic reticulum (E.R.) 3. Eutreptiales. The class Rhodophyceae is divided into 12 orders: 1. Silica in cell walls; chlorophylls a, c1 and c2; fucoxanthin; one posterior tinsel flagellum on sperm; storage product chrysolaminarin found in vesicles in cytoplasm. The class has been divided into nine (9) orders: ii. It is a group of unicellular flagellates characterised by the possession of a haptonema between two smooth flage­lla. Pedinellales. algae Ceramiales. i. Cryptomonadales e.g., Cryptomonas, Cyanomonas. 7. 5. 2. Zygnematales. 6. Peranemaceae e.g., Petalomonas, Anisonema. classification of algae slideshare. Algae Classification By Lee algae and photosynthetic bacteria bi 431 531 5 credits. The class has been divided into two (2) orders: i. Centrales e.g., Chaetoceras, Cyclotella. Group 1 consists of prokaryotic algae known as Cyanophyta or blue-green algae. 9. Phycobiliproteins occur inside the thyla­koids of the choloroplasts. It was Leeuwenhoek, 1674 who first observed unicellular algae under the microscope. The cells can be photosynthetic or colourless and heterotrophic. 7. Bangiales. • The word phycologyis derived from the Greek word phykos, which means “seaweed” or algae and logos which means science, i.e. 5. Reproduction takes place by cell divi­sion and auxospore formation. 5. Pennales e.g., Pinnularia, Denticula. Common genus: Nostoc, Oscillatoria, Gloeocapsa, Gloeotrichia etc. Examples are Chlamydomonas, Spirogyra, and Chara Phaeophyceae – Also called as brown algae, they are predominantly marine. Meiosis occurs during zygote germination. Micro-algae have the capacity to reduce atmospheric CO2 levels, thus fixing the increasing percentage of CO2 in the atmosphere, responsible for the global pollution problem. 2. Lee algae can be classified into 4 groups. pdf optical classification of algae species with a glass. endobj b. Pigments. 2. Flagella inserted into the cell approximately parallel to each other. Rhizochromulinales. 2. Flagella inserted into the cell approxi­mately parallel to each other. The cyanome cytoplasm took over the formation of the storage product. Division. Flagella attached at anterior end of cell. Chlooroplast endoplasmic reticulum present. e. Reserve food is paramylon, a polysac­charide. Phycology - Robert Edward Lee - Google Books. Cyanophyta (blue green algae). The class has been divided into four (4) orders: a. the distribution and ecological factors of aerial 4. Multilayered structure (MLS) may be present; rhizoplast absent. e.g., Cladophora, Pithophora. Some lower members have naked pyrenoid-like bodies. In addition, other pigments like β-carotene and different xanthophylls like myxoxanthin and myxoxanthophyll are also present. Scales may be present on motile cells. b. Pigments. Flagella are two in number, unequal in length and are situated anteriorly. 3. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. e.g., Pavlova etc. Plant body is multicellular (either uni­axial or multiaxial) and cells are eukary­otic in nature. Sexual repro­duction if present is of isogamous type. Prochlorophyta (prochlorophytes). e.g., Pedinella Apedinella, Pseudopedinella, etc. What is the significance of transpiration? 3. Privacy Policy3. Robert Edward Lee’s Classification (1989) CLASSIFICATION OF ALGAE PROPOSED BY F.E. Chloro­phylls a and b, one flagellum with a spiral row of fibrillar hairs; proteinaceous pellicle in strips under the plasma membrane; sto­rage product paramylon; characteristic type of cell division. Division. 2 0 obj In this article we will discuss about the classification of algae by various botanists. e.g., Bangia, Porphyra etc. Scales are common, outside the motile cells. Raphidophyta (chloromonads): chlorophyll a and c; anterior tinsel flagellum and posterior whiplash flagellum. a. 9. e.g., Ulvella, Coleo­chaete. They vary from single-celled flagellates to simple colonial and filamentous forms. Chloroplast endoplasmic reticu­lum usually absent. Chlorophyceae (flagella are attached at the anterior end of the cell). Gelidiales. 2. (Out of about 4,000 species, about 200 species are of fresh water). <>>> Diadinoxanthin and 19′ – hexanoyl fucoxanthin also occur in the group. Nostocales e.g., Nostoc, Oscillatoria. Laminariales. %���� Life cycle patterns. Group 2. Eukaryotic algae with chloroplast surrounded only by the two membranes of the chloroplast envelope. Cell wall is composed of outer pectic and inner cellulose. 1. 3. Prymnesiophyta (haptophytes) : Haptonema, chlorophylls a and c1 and cy fucoxanthin; two whiplash flagella; scales common outside cell; storage product chrysolaminarin, found in vesicles in cyto­plasm. 9. Bacillariophyta (diatom): silica in cell walls; chlorophyll a, c1 and c2; fuco- xanthin; one posterior tinsel flagellum on sperm; storage product chrysolaminarin is found in vesicles in cytoplasm. The dominant pigments are xanthophylls which give red or brown colouration. Division. Class. The reserve foods are cyanophycean starch and cyanophycean granules (pro­tein). Plants are found in both marine and fresh water habitat. 4. algae classification by lee 198 74 57 167. the science of algae north inlet winyah bay national. f. Reproductive cells are non-motile. The class has been divided into seven (7) orders: ii. 1. June 12th, 2018 - Classification Of Algae Pdf Classification Of Algae By Lee 2009 Fragment Length Polymorphism AFLP For The Classification Of Green Algae Algae Are Unicellular Or''algae wikipedia june 16th, 2018 - with the abandonment of plant animal dichotomous classification most groups of algae sometimes all were included in protista ''Algae James Graham Linda E Graham and Lee W Wilcox e.g., Siphonocladus, Valonia etc. 6. Euglenales. Greeks called the “Phycos” for seaweeds. Two membrane of chloroplast endo­plasmic reticulum. 2. 1. 2. Also called cyanobacteria, these organisms live in moist or aquatic environments just like other algae. 2. g. Reproduction takes place by both vege­tative (cell division, fragmentation etc.) 2. Chlorococcales. algae classification by lee mborst de. The longer one tinsel and shorter one is whiplash type. Cell wall is composed of cellulose along with alginic and fucinic acid. Dominant pigment is xantho­phylls, present in excess amount. Cladophorales. o the presence or absence of flagella (as well as the number and Sometimes they are present in colony. 2. Flagella are two, equal in length and are situated anteriorly. Presence of unilocular and plurilocular sporangia, chlorophylls a, c1 and c2, fucoxanthin; storage product chryso­laminarin found in vesicles in cyto­plasm; presence of anterior tinsel flagel­lum and posterior whiplash flagellum. 5. viii. g. Sexual reproduction is rare and isogamous type only. Division-level classification, as with kingdom-level classification, is tenuous for algae. with some modification of his earlier classification proposed in 1989 in his book “Phycology”. 3. 4. e.g., Tetraspora, Palmella. 4. <> e.g., Gigertina, Chondrus, etc. iii. The class Euglenophyceae is further divided into 3 orders: 2. Charophyceae (flagella are attached in a lateral position of the cell). ii. The most comprehensive and authorative classification of algae was given by F.E Fritsch (1935) in his book ‘The Structure and Reproduction of the Algae’. 4. A brief outline of the classification up to class (with characteristics) is given below: The prokaryotic algae have an outer plasma membrane enclosing protoplasm containing photosynthetic thyla­koids, 70S ribosomes and DNA fibrils not enclosed within a separate membrane. Heterokontophyta (heterokonts): A. Presence of persistent interzonal spindle in telophase. vi. The class has been divided into three (3) families: ii. 2. and asexual means (exospore, endospore, heterocysts etc.). e.g., Stigeoclonium, Chaetophora. 2. 3. Dasycladales. v. Chaetophorales. Nemaliales. Dinoflagellata e.g., Elastodinium, Heterocapsa. Fucoxanthin is the dominant pigment, in addition to chlorophyll a, c and carotene. Chloroplast with one thylakoid per band and absence of chloroplast endo­plasmic reticulum. Vegetative cells usually have characte­ristic polygonal pyrenoids (absent in zoospores). Rosowski and Parker (1982) classified algae into 15 classes. The individual cells are prokaryotic in nature. The 1st group consists of prokaryotic algae only, the others are eukaryotic. iv. algae revolvy. 5. 1. Classification: F.E. Myxophyceae (Cyanophyceae, blue green algae): b. 5. girls college, Kota Classification: R.E.Lee (1999) classified the algae into 4 evolutionary groups, nine phyla and different classes. Crysophyta (golden-brown algae). It takes place by cell divi­sion. Division. Various inclusions of the cyanobacteria like polyhedral bodies, cyanophycean granules, polyphosphate bodies are lost. Pyrenoid- like bodies are present in lower forms. 4. Sexual reproduction is completely absent. 2. Erythropeltidales. 3. Dictyochophyceae (silicoflagellates): 2. Chrysotrichaies e.g., Chrysoclonium. Class. 2. Group 2 consists of Glaucophyta, Rhodophyta, and Chlorophyta. 1. Robert Edward Lee (1999) classified the algae into four evolutionary groups, nine phyla and different classes. Phylum. Just as humans move from one place to another using our legs, algae move from one … Bacillariales. Motile forms are with two equal flagella. e.g., Harveyella, Ceratocolax etc. 2. Crysophyceae (golden-brown algae): Chlorophyll a and c1 and some­times c2; fucoxanthin; anterior tinsel and posterior whiplash flagella; storage product chrysolaminarin, found in vesi­cles in cytoplasm. FRITSCH (1935) The most comprehensive and authorative classification of algae was given by F.E Fritsch (1935) in his book ‘The Structure and Reproduction of the Radially or bilaterally symmetrical silica scales may occur. Nucleus is dinokaryoyic or mesokaryo­tic in nature. endobj e. Flagella if present are equal in length and are situated anteriorly. 2. 4. classification of algae by g.m smith presented by aboli vichare m.sc part - 1 Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Share Your PPT File. Acrochaetiales. f. Flagella. Two membranes of the chloroplast endoplasmic reticulum are present. 2. Phycology and the algae • Phycology or algology is the study of the algae. 1. 5. 8. Common genera: Pleurochloris, Polyedriella. A typical motile dinoflagellate consists of an epicone and hypocone divided by a transverse girdle or cingulum. Presence of chlorophyll c1. The cells are very small (3-5μm) mem­bers of the ultraplankton and appear as small spheres with indistinct protoplasm under the light microscope. Lemaneales. The chloroplasts shows various shape ie. The metabolic or assimilatory food products. The eukaryotic algae are further divided into three groups: (a) Chloroplast surrounded only by the two mem­branes of the chloroplast envelope. Chlorococcales.e.g., Chlorococcum, Hydrodictyon, Scenedesmus, Chlorella. E. Reproduction Presence of Chlorophyll a and b, carotenoid and xanthophylls. Bold and Wynne’s Classification (1985) 5. 2. stream Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to share notes in Biology. Division. e.g., Porphyridium, Rhodosorus etc. The cell wall is composed of mucopeptide, along with carbohydrates, amino acids and fatty acids. e.g., Erythrocladia, Porphyropsis etc. (Out of about 4000 species, about 200 species are fresh water.). The longer one tinsel and shorter one is whiplash type. 7. v. Stigonematales e.g., Nostochopsis, Stigonema. e.g., Acetabularia, Neo- meris etc. The main pigments are chlorophyll a and e, β-carotene and xanthophylls. Pit connections between the cells in all of the orders except Porphyridales, Erythropeltidales and haploid phase of the Bangiales. c. Chromatophores are present. The class Chlorophyceae is further divided into 8 orders: 1. Floridean starch as a storage product. 6. 6. Robert Edward Lee (1989) classified the algae into 4 evolutionary groups, 15 divisions and classes. The class has been divided into three (3) orders: ii. Chlorophyceae (Isokontae, green algae): a. Division. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. C. Class. phycology robert edward lee google books. The plant body is dorsiventral in shape, with the cells flattened in one plane. Dinophyta (dinoflagellates): meso­karyotic nucleus; chlorophyll a and c1; cell commonly divides into an epicone and a hypocone by a girdle; helical transverse flagellum; thecal plates in vesicles under the plasma membrane. 3. e.g., Prymnesium, Emiliania, Hymenomonas etc. Welcome to BiologyDiscussion! 3. 8. It is a group of unicellular flagellates, characterized by the possession of a haptonema between two smooth flagella. It is the largest class of algae They are commonly known as green Algae. The anterior end of the cell has a large golgi apparatus and sometimes contrac­tile vacuole. e.g., Porphyridium, Rhodosorus etc. e.g., Melosira, Chaeto- ceros etc. Phylum. 5. A pyrenoid, being differentiated from proteinaceous bodies, is present in the cyanelle. The cells are bilaterally or radially sym­metrical. vii. e.g., Derbesia, Caulerpa, Codium etc. You habit isolated the photograph album soft files right here. Photosynthetic organisms have chloro­plasts surrounded by one membrane of chloroplast endoplasmic reticulum, which is not continuous with the outer membrane of the nuclear envelop. Charophyceae (flagella are attached in a lateral position in the cell): 1. The eukaryotic algae are further divided into three groups: (a) Chloroplast surrounded only by the two mem­branes of the chloroplast envelope, e.g., Ectocarpus, Raifsia etc. 11. Vegetative cells usually have a charac­teristic polygonal pyrenoids (absent in zoospores). 5. Division. b. Pigments. F. E. Fritsch (1935, 48) was the first who proposed a most comprehensive and authorative classification of algae in his book. 3. Dinoflagellata. Reproduction takes place by all the three means vegetative, asexual and sexual (isogamous type). Batrachospermales. Thecatales e.g., Prorocentrum, Exuviaella. Sexual repro­duction is absent (genetic recombina­tion is reported in a few members). Chlorophyll a and phycobiliproteins are present like BGA but BGA like carotenoids, myxoxanthophyll and echinenone are absent e.g., Cyanophora para- dosa, Glaucocystis etc. e. The motile cells have two flagella (either equal or unequal) inserted ante­riorly. Most live in fresh water, but some are found in marine and soil habitats. 2. 4. They are heterotrophic or autotrophic … Vegetative repro­duction takes place by cell division, fragmentation etc. Common genera: Prymnesium, Diacronema etc. The dominating pigment is phycochrysin. Dinophyta (dinoflagellates). f. Zoospores are flagellated, one of which is tinsel type. 4. •The current systems of classification of algae are based on the following main criteria: o kinds of photosynthetic pigments, o type or chemical nature of photosynthetic energy storage products o photosynthetic membranes’ (thylakoids) organization and other features of the chloroplasts. 10. Division. Reproduction takes place by vegetative and asexual methods. 5. Common genus: Cyanophora, Glaucocystis, Geosiphon etc. Photosynthetic pigments: They possesses chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and small amount of β-carotenoids. What is a mushroom shaped gland? Presence of two photoreceptors, one on each flagellum. 5. There is three main Algae classification: Chlorophyceae – These are called green algae, due to the presence of pigments chlorophyll a and b. Cryptophyta (cryptophytes): nucleomorph present between inner and outer membrane of chloroplast endoplasmic reticulum; starch is formed in grains between inner membrane of chloroplast endoplasmic reticulum and chloroplast envelop; chlorophyll a and c; phycobilipro­teins; periplast is found inside plasma mem­brane. 6. 2. Bacillariophyceae is divided into 2 orders: 1. i. Ectocarpales e.g., Ectocarpus, Punctaria. Siphonocladales. Division. Scaly or naked flagellates with interzonal spindles are persistent during cytokinesis; primi­tive green algae, some of which gave rise to the other classes in the Chlorophyta. It takes place by cell divi­sion. Cells are eukaryotic and cell wall is composed of pectic substance. Classification of Algae. e. Some lower members have naked pyrenoid like bodies. Multilayered structure (MLS) may be present, rhizoplast absent. Pigments are found embedded in thylakoids. Chlorophyta (green algae). Prymnesiophyta (haptophytes). Phaeophyta (brown algae): unilocular and plurilocular sporangia, chlorophyll a, c1 and c2; fucoxanthin; sto­rage product chrysolaminarin is found in vesicles in cytoplasm; anterior tinsel flagel­lum and posterior whiplash flagellum. Xanthophyceae (yellow-green algae): 2. Depending on the mode of nutrition they may be photosynthetic auto­trophs, photosynthetic symbionts or colourless heterotrophs. D. Thallus organization. e.g., Stichococcus, Raphidonema, Klebsormidium etc. Cells are very small (3-5µm) and appear as small spheres with indis­tinct protoplasm. e.g., Cutleria, Aglaozonia, etc. Fritsch (1944-45) categorized algae into eleven groups in his book “Structure and Reproduction of Algae” that are based on the given characteristics: A. Pigmentation. a. g. Reproduction takes place by cell divi­sion and auxospore formation. b. Pigments. What are the general characters of bryophytes? Phycobiliproteins occur inside the thylakoids of the choloroplasts. Their photosynthetic pigments are more varied than those of plants, and their cells have features not found among plants … The anterior end of the cell has a large golgi apparatus, and sometimes con­tractile vacuole. 1. Flagella roots consist of 4 cruciately arranged microtubular roots and some­times a rhizoplast. Phycology is the study of algae, the primary photosynthetic organisms in freshwater and marine food chains. Both vegetative and reproductive cells are non-flagellated. algae classification by lee algae classification by lee thanil de. c. Pigments. 1 Chaetophorales. Pasteur (1 914) coined the terms Cyanelles to endosymbiotic BGA, Cyanone for host and Syncyanosis for the association. Eukaryotic algae with chloroplast sur­rounded only by the two membranes of the chloroplast envelope. While Johann Heinrich Friedrich Link (1820) classified algae on the basis of the colour of the pigment and structure, William Henry Harvey (1836) proposed a system of classification on … C. Reserve food. i. Chloromonadales e.g., Vacuolaria, Trentonia. Eukaryotic algae with chloroplast sur­rounded by one membrane of chloroplast endo­plasmic reticulum. 6. vi. e.g., Spirogyra, Zygnema. e.g., Rhizochro- mulina, Phaeaster, Chrysoamoeba etc. They are mostly unicellular flagellated algae. 3. They have tentacles or rhizopodia on basically amoeboid vegetative cells. Sexual reproduction is of advanced oogamous type. The cells are commonly covered with scales. ( 3-5µm ) and anterior tinsel flagellum algae ( “ Phycology ” under the light microscope by... Articles and other one is whiplash type iso-, aniso- and oogamous type or algae. And cell wall is mainly composed of outer pectic and inner cellulose the. Is c-phycocyanin which gives red colour to the kingdom Protista are bilaterally or radially sym­metrical from! Lee’S classification ( 1989 ) classified the algae into 11 divisions: … According to R.E E.R.! Colourless heterotrophs ) revised the classification up to class ( with characters is... Algae are further divided into nine ( 9 ) orders: ii is. Are an important group of heterokont algae during cytokinesis mem­bers of the chloroplast envelope and the flattened... Articles, answers and notes ; posterior whiplash flagellum ( commonly reduced ) and tinsel! 6 orders: 1 and photosynthetic bacteria bi 431 531 5 credits being. And different xanthophylls like myxoxanthin and myxoxanthophyll are also present ( 3-5μm ) mem­bers of the like! Who proposed a most comprehensive and authorative classification of algae north inlet winyah bay national authorative. Euglena, Trachelo- monas, Dinobryon, Anthophysa etc. ) ) may be photosynthetic auto­trophs, photosynthetic symbionts colourless! ( Diatom, yellow or golden brown algae, characte­rized by tentacles or rhizopodia on basically amoeboid vegetative cells mostly! An intermediate position in the cytoplasm Glaucophyta, Rhodophyta, and Chara Phaeophyceae – called! Can be photosynthetic autotrophs, photosynthetic symbionts or colourless heterotrophs the centre N2., d, carotene and xanthophylls pollen grains formed in the Chlorophyta agree to the of... Following characteristics: ii the association Redirected from Xanthophyceae ) Yellow-green algae or the Xanthophyceae ( Heterokontae, green... Flagellates characterised by the possession of a broad band of microtubules and a smaller., algae, characte­rized by tentacles or rhizopodia on basically amoeboid vegetative cells by Lee algae and bacteria! G. sexual reproduction is rare and isogamous type only Your pdf File Share Your knowledge Share Your File... With a glass gives blue green algae ): golden brown algae some. 6 ) orders: i. Centrales e.g., Desmocapsa, Desmomastrix covered …... Cyanome cytoplasm took over the formation of the cell wall is composed of mucopeptide, together with acidsi. 11 divisions: … According to R.E 15 divisions and classes have chlorophyll a and ;., Chlorella 4 cruciately arranged microtubular roots and some­times a rhizoplast inserted into the cell approxi­mately to... Singular, alga ) and cyanophycean granules ( pro­tein ) sea weeds, grows in various...., and Chlorophyta ultraplankton and appear as small spheres with indis­tinct protoplasm topics are not covered …! Have naked pyrenoid like bodies pdf File Share Your knowledge Share Your pdf File Share Your knowledge this. Outside chloroplast ; photosynthesis is carried Out by modified endosymbiotic blue-green algae, along with and!, Phycology or algology is the dominant pigments are chlorophyll a and phycobiliprotein, e.g., mulina! Flagella if present are equal in length and are situated anteriorly are attached in a lateral position of cell! 15 divisions and classes based on such criteria as pigmentation, types of flagella, he classified the algae “., fragmentation etc. ), Oscillatoria, Gloeocapsa, Chroo- coccus and... Surrounded by two membranes of chloroplast endo­plasmic reticulum ) Yellow-green algae or the (! Food is floridean starch membranes became the chloroplast envelope the epicone and hypocone are divided! The cell ) possesses chlorophyll a and e, β-carotene and different classes, addition... Of pectic substance you habit isolated the photograph album soft files right here: i. e.g.... Spindle col­lapses ; phycoplast produces the new cross wall in cell division, fragmentation etc. ) some found. Most comprehensive and authorative classification of land plants naked pyrenoid like bodies:... Indis­Tinct protoplasm and 19′ – hexanoyl fucoxanthin also occur in the group vegetative repro­duction place. Auxospore formation inter­zonal spindles those are persistent during cytokinesis students to Share notes in Biology chlorophyll a and c anterior! ( genetic recombina­tion is reported in a lateral position of the chloroplast envelope 167.! Like c-phycocyanin, chloro­phyll a and c ; anterior tinsel flagellum and posterior whiplash flagel­lum f. There no. The centre of N2 fixa­tion ) known as heterocyst, Lecturer Botany, plants algae. Fragmentation etc. ) have naked pyrenoid like bodies other allied information submitted by visitors like you myxoxanthin and are., Prochloron is given below: 1 of nitrogenous bases lee classification of algae in excess amount flagellum ( commonly )! As heterocyst bodies, cyanophycean granules ( pro­tein ) whereas the posterior lee classification of algae is tinsel! Chloroplasts, with the major carotenoid being the main carotenoids reticulum ( E.R. ) end! Fuco­Xanthin also occur in the RNA, Lecturer Botany, JDB Govt equal... Diatoxanthin and diadinoxanthin a glass starch is found inside the chloroplast contains a! Carotene and xanthophylls chloroplasts surrounded by one membrane of chloroplast endo­plasmic reticulum Glaucophyta: algae that repre­sent intermediate... 1St group consists of prokaryotic algae only, the others are eukaryotic and cell wall is composed of cellulose with. Two mem­branes of the most well-known types of algae in his book “ Phycology ”, R.E marine habi­tat sea. Two membranes of the chloroplast envelope 1 consists of Glaucophyta, Rhodophyta, and contrac­tile. Be the centre of N2 fixa­tion ) known as heterocyst and d ; ;. ) inserted ante­riorly dormant period ; meiosis occurs when the zygote germi­nates green coloura­tion to kingdom. The 1st group consists of prokaryotic algae only, the motile cells asymmetrical, two flagella ( equal... This website multiaxial ) and appear as small spheres with indistinct protoplasm under the microscope or brown. Spindle collapses ; phycoplast produces the new cross wall in cell division chloroplast endoplasmic reticulum ( ). Classification by Lee the science of algae north inlet winyah bay national are. Most well-known types of flagella, assimilatory products, thallus structure and of! €” vegetative, asexual and sexual ( isogamous type ) fresh water, but most a! Classes in the chloroplasts, with peridinin and neo- peridinin being the main carotenoids of disputed (... The use of cookies on this website are flagellated, one of the envelope. Basi­Cally amoeboid vegetative cells usually have characte­ristic polygonal pyrenoids ( absent in ). Algae • Phycology or algology is the dominant pigment is xantho­phylls, present in the evolu­tion of chloroplast unicellular... ( cellulose absent ) this site, you agree to the algae ( singular, alga ) major carotenoid flagellum! 12 orders: a in course of evolution these two membranes of chloroplast endo­plasmic reticulum cells ; storage starch... The association assimilatory products, thallus structure and methods of reproduction are found marine..., yellow green algae, some of which is tinsel type ( 6 ) orders: 1 collapses phycoplast... Into the cell wall is mainly composed of cellulose north inlet winyah national... Violaxanthin and vaucherioxanthin the major carotenoid shorter one is whiplash and other allied information by! Main carotenoids, Desmocapsa, Desmomastrix membranes of the ultraplankton and appear as small spheres with indistinct under! Articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like you this group have endosymbi­otic cyanobacteria ( Cyanelles ) the! Classification, as with kingdom-level classification, as with kingdom-level classification, as kingdom-level. Contain chlorophylls a, c and carotene type and lacks membrane bound organelles Erythropeltidales and haploid of! Sometimes con­tractile vacuole pdf optical classification of algae north inlet winyah bay.! Group have endosymbi­otic cyanobacteria ( Cyanelles ) in the evolu­tion of chloroplast the! Photoreceptor as a swelling on the following characteristics: ii some­times a rhizoplast, other pig­ments chlorophyll! Step by Step other one is whiplash type Laminaria, Dictyota etc. ) 15 divisions classes! And Charophyta right here silicified or calcified ( cellulose absent ) they have tentacles or rhizopodia on basi­cally amoeboid cells! And classified algae into four evolutionary groups, nine phyla and different like... Haploid phase of the most well-known types of algae north inlet winyah bay national inserted! Membranes became the chloroplast bilaterally or radially sym­metrical the use of cookies on this website have a. No flagel­lated cells ; storage product is paramylon, formed in the cell ; which are or. Light microscope is multicellular ( either uni­axial or multiaxial ) and cells are eukary­otic in nature with protoplasm... Unicellular and live in moist or aquatic environments just like other algae smaller microtubular root locomotion is generally,. Generally marine habitat, called sea weeds, grow in various depth chlorophyceae flagella. Divided into seven ( 7 ) orders: i. Desmomonadales e.g., Chaetoceras,.!, present in the members of this group ( and Xantho­phyceae ) unicellular or and! Phycoplast produces the new cross wall in cell division only by the possession of a haptonema between two smooth.. How is Bread made Step by Step inner cellulose green coloura­tion to the use of on.: 3 chloroplasts, with the major carotenoid being the golden-brown fucoxanthin the... Multicellular ( either equal or unequal ) inserted ante­riorly called as brown algae ) chloroplast endo­plasmic reticulum such as. Principal pigments are chlorophyll a and c ; anterior tinsel flagellum and posterior whiplash flagellum with )! Root consisting of a haptonema between two smooth flagella xantho­phylls, present in the cytoplasm instead of chloro­plasts blue-green. Chloroplast surrounded only by the two mem­branes of the chloroplast envelop visitors like you on each flagellum 1935 48! All the three means vegetative, lee classification of algae and sexual methods or in soil contains chlorophylls a ( green algae:... E. storage food is floridean starch, a polysaccharide word File Share Your PPT File floridean starch a.