Home Economics: Food and Nutrition (CCEA). These were either based on an individual’s habits or on interactions between particular characters that the audience would come to expect. He is a quack who is a self-proclaimed expert on any subject he so chooses - often medicine or law - depending on what the storyline requires. From the stage to the screen, to music and fine art, Commedia has been kept alive and has evolved to become one of the most important and versatile art forms in history. Commedia dell’ arte was first discovered in the 16th Century in Italy where professional actors who were highly skilled in acrobatics and “slapstick” style of comedy would perform improvised scenarios for the masses in and outside the theatre! During the 16th, 17th and 18th century, in the midst of the renaissance, there was a very delightful source of entertainment that people where privy too. Commedia Dell’Arte was a very popular form of acrobatic street theatre performed in early-modern Italy. It is also highly, highly physical. The arrival of women on stage caused a sensation with shock and gossip, attracting voyeurs as well as considerable criticism, but the result was a surge in popularity for Commedia dell’Arte and the prima donna was born. They were, however, often quarrelsome, cowardly, envious, spiteful, vindictive, and treacherous. See more ideas about Commedia dell’arte, Stock character, Theatre. All the Commedia ‘masks’ have distinct postures and walks, indicative of their characters. Commedia dell’arte is at the heart of what we do. The Commedia dell’Arte International intensive is a truly unique opportunity open to students at Fourth Monkey. The characters in Commedia dell’arte can be summarized as follows: “two vecchi (old men), four innamorati (two male and two female lovers), two zanni (an astute servant and trickster), a captain and a servetta (serving maid)”. RCCU's philosophy on teaching Commedia dell'Arte . Well known things about them include: They were the first troupes of professional actors in Europe. To that end, this unit is divided into two parts. Very few theatres had been built since Roman times but in 1588, the architect Vincenzo Scamozzi began building Teatro all’Antica in Sabbioneta, Northern Italy as an indoor playing space for Commedia. The relationship between Basil Fawlty and Manuel in the BBC sitcom, , is reminiscent of the master-servant relationship in the, . Concepts of perspective were beginning to be explored during the Renaissance and the first perspective backdrops were created, depicting street scenes. The Zanni comes from the countryside and is known to be a "dispossessed immigrant worker". Commedia dell’arte Mask work and movement are key in Commedia dell’arte, an Italian comedy tradition that was popular in the Renaissance period. Summary: Commedia dell’arte took place in the 16th century during the Renaissance and was an improvisational theatre form. The 17th century was the Golden Era for Commedia dell’Arte as Italian comics dominated the European stage and the star system was born, firmly establishing acting as a legitimate trade. Each mask design is paired with a specific character based on its appearance and tradition. , a play with its roots in Commedia dell’arte Credit: Nigel Norrington/ArenaPAL, at Piccolo Teatro di Milano. Shakespeare’s Fools are often zanni character types; his romantic leads are clearly inspired by Commedia’s innamorati (the Lovers), his miserable old misers by Pantalone and his pedantic, buffoon-like old men by il Dottore. Homework. Sign up to our monthly newsletter. Comici Confidènti, either of two companies of the Italian commedia dell’arte that were instrumental in extending the reputation of this form of improvised theatre throughout Europe. The actual term Commedia dell’Arte was not coined until much later, by Carlo Goldoni. 2 likes. Actors traditionally performed without scripts, relying on a running order to decide the narrative flow but each actor would have a repertoire for their character that may include rehearsed lazzi (comic physical gags), concetti (romantic poetic verse) or other monologues they could incorporate into the action. Zanni, plural zanni or zannis, stock servant character in the Italian improvisational theatre known as the commedia dell’arte. The term itself (Commedia dell’arte) wasn’t put to common use until the 18th century. Every classic comedy that has stood the test of time is indebted to Commedia dell’Arte for hilarious, comic character types and physical slapstick and tomfoolery. A collections of films about commedia dell'arte taken from a two day workshop at the National Theatre with Didi Hopkins of Commediaworks. 0% average accuracy. It has very clear, simple and humorous plot lines, usually related to the themes of love, money or food. Sep 18, 2018 - Explore Bebop's board "commedia" on Pinterest. It is likely he was inspired by the charlatans who pedalled their wares in the 16th century market places, proffering obscure ‘cure-alls’, potions and ointments. When it started, street performers wore some unique masks with exaggerated expressions that pique the interest of people. Print; Share; Edit; Delete; Host a game. Commedia dell’arte is a 16th century masked acting form. Commedia Dell’Arte was a very popular form of acrobatic street theatre performed in early-modern Italy. The lazzi were hugely, if not entirely dependent on movement, such as Arlecchino catching and eating a fly in a stylised way, pretending to be a statue as a way of hiding, or getting beaten round the head by his master. The plots were arguably vehicles for a number of comic routines known as, . Commedia … Commedia dell'Arte featured stock characters, some of whom wore distinctive masks. and shows the exaggerated body movements required from performers (subtitles are available). There is evidence of female zanni roles (zagna) from the earliest documented commedia scenarios but it is thought that these were played by men in masks. Important parts of each … Commedia dell’arte: an actor’s handbook. Commedia … We are based in Gloucestershire, UK and work internationally. See more ideas about Commedia dell’arte, Stock character, Physical theatre. This form is characterized by masked types and archetypical characters and a specific way of playing comedy. Play. And we make it for everyone. Zanni, plural zanni or zannis, stock servant character in the Italian improvisational theatre known as the commedia dell’arte. Sometimes as teachers we presume that students "just know how" to move in the space with one another. In the early 18th Century, the Harlequinade came into vogue featuring Harlequin, Columbine, Pantaloon, The Captain, Polchinelle and Pierrot. The plots were arguably vehicles for a number of comic routines known as lazzi. Commedia dell'arte was formerly called Italian comedy in English and is also known as commedia alla maschera, commedia improvviso, and commedia dell'arte all'improvviso. Commedia dell'arte, also known as "Italian comedy," was a humorous theatrical presentation performed by professional actors who traveled in troupes throughout Italy in the 16th century. Our tips from experts and exam survivors will help you through. The 17th century was the Golden Era for Commedia dell’Arte as Italian comics dominated the European stage and the star system was born, firmly establishing acting as a legitimate trade. This quiz is incomplete! Originators of the Scaramouche character; Italians performing in France had to overcome language barrier. The themes for Commedia dell’ Arte are any of these four types: love, death, greed, and hunger. The earliest forms of commedia are thought to have featured only zanni characters: the archetypal fool; the peasants who have come to the cities to try to find work. He became a master for the zanni; someone to be mocked by the underdog. Mask work and movement are key in Commedia dell’arte, an Italian comedy tradition that was popular in the Renaissance period. Commedia dell’arte: an actor’s handbook. Their thought processes are simplistic, governed by physical and carnal needs for survival. This character is one that derives directly from Roman plays where The Braggard was a familiar fop who told tall stories and arrogantly strutted about the stage (Plautus’ Miles Gloriosus written in around 205BC). Live Game Live. Commedia dell’Arte grew to become one of the most influential and enduring theatre styles in the world. Watch . What is Commedia dell’arte? More info. Edit. From around 1770 to 1900, Harlequin (Arlecchino) was the star of the English Harlequinade, along with Columbine and Pantaloon. All of them were the theater historian from Italy. Perhaps a cause for the expressive physicality of Commedia Dell’Arte The first documented appearance of a woman on stage was by actress Vincenza Armani in around 1566 but the most famous First Actress was Isabella Andreini, wife of Francesco Andreini of Il Gelosi, first appearing on stage in 1576. In a commedia dell' arte program, we have found that the better prepared students are for highly physical and exaggerated movement the better. Arts. Sign up to our monthly newsletter. Western theatre: Commedia dell’arte …used, as well as the lazzi (special rehearsed routines that could be inserted into the plays at convenient points to heighten the comedy). Commedia dell'Arte has been depicted as actors in masks performing on temporary stages in market squares in woodcuts, paintings, engravings, and drawings by artists such as Callot, Scarron, and Dujardin. This was the forerunner of the Victorian Pantomime. Commedia dell’arte A theater form that emerged in northern Italy in the 15th century and spread throughout Europe. It is the basis of all comedy, including all tv sitcoms. There is no easy answer to this and it is still the subject of much debate (you’ll find plenty of that on YouTube with a basic search of Commedia dell’Arte). Meanwhile, in England, it is very likely that Shakespeare would have seen or at least heard accounts of the Italian Players and the influence of Commedia is clearly visible in many of Shakespeare’s works. This form is characterized by masked types and archetypical characters and a specific way of playing comedy. Practice. Actresses may well have played zanni characters - servetta - before this time, but again, it was not until Columbina (always unmasked) emerged, that evidence of women on stage can be confirmed. The first commedia dell’arte troupes – These can be traced to Italy in the 1530’s. The female Lover was soon paired with an unmasked male Lover. The hallmark of the Commedia is the desperate nature of its stock characters who became known simply as the masks. I was challenged in a way I had never been before. Quotes tagged as "commedia-dell-arte" Showing 1-3 of 3 “If you recognize that the person you love deserves your love, will your soul to suffer some.” Carlo Goldoni – The Lovers” ― Carlo Goldoni, Gl'Innamorati. Il Vecchi (‘the old men’) joined the ranks of commedia, as a stock type that lampooned the wealthy, powerful landowners of Renaissance Italy. It was a theatrical spectacle stemming from the French pantomime in which actors would portray certain characters who have predetermined traits. Commedia was performed anywhere an audience could be gathered: at first in piazzas on raised trestle stages, soon being invited to the courts of the aristocracy and, as theatres began to be built, the troupes moved indoors working with the earliest perspective stage scenery. Commedia dell’Arte grew to become one of the most influential and enduring theatre styles in the world. It was recognized for being comedic, improvised, and having clear elements: Stock characters including servants (zanni), masters (vecchi), and young lovers (innamorati), who were easily recognized by their movements, look, and mannerisms Performances based on scenarios with mostly improvised themes […] 29 Pins • 305 Followers. Commedia is the inspiration for many forms of theatre including Shakespearean, opera, Moliére and musical theatre, though an important aspect of Commedia dell’arte that had progressed to the modern media is a prop used by the character Arlecchino. Played 0 times. In fact, the art form is sometimes called commedia dell'arte all' improvviso . Commedia dell'arte was formerly called Italian comedy in English and is also known as commedia alla maschera, commedia improvviso, and commedia dell'arte all'improvviso. Performances took place on temporary stages, mostly on … Jun 27, 2018 - Explore Luci Chambers's board "Teaching Theatre: COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE", followed by 219 people on Pinterest. Teatro all’Antica was the first theatre in modern times that was conceived from the start as theatre building and still stands today as a UNESCO World Heritage site. This archaic form of acting was based around improvising and the use of masks. Routledge, 2015. At the National, we make world-class theatre that is entertaining, challenging and inspiring. That era was a time for starvation, death, and adverse economic situations. Where Did Commedia Dell’Arte Originate? Commedia performances gained popularity rapidly and the actors saw an opportunity to make profit. They began to sell tickets to their performances and the troupes were soon invited to perform in courts and palaces of the elite. This film is an introduction to the world of Commedia dell'Arte. On this day, in 1545, the first troupe of performers registered themselves as an official business, making acting a legitimate profession. Each character has a distinct repertoire of moves and stances that would have been developed and mastered by an actor over many years of playing the same role. The commedia dell’arte was a form of popular theatre that emphasized ensemble acting; its improvisations were set in a firm framework of masks and stock situations, and its plots were frequently borrowed from the classical literary tradition of the commedia erudita, or literary drama. Commedia is a form of theatre characterized by masked "types" which began in Italy in the 16th century and was responsible for the advent of actresses (Isabella Andreini ) and improvised perfor… HISTORICAL!CONTEXT! A key moment in theatrical history took place in the 1560’s when women entered the stage. The PTP includes training in the FM Alexander Technique, physical awareness and responsiveness, vocal and movement improvisation, as well as the study of mask, clown, melodrama, and commedia dell’arte, with ongoing research into the process of making theatre. Commedia took place wherever an audience and some form of stage could be found - indoors or out, commonly performed in piazzas, on a two metre high trestle stage, with a single backdrop that depicted a house or a row of them on a street. The best way to find out about the difficulties in playing Commedia dell’Arte is by doing it. Learning Through Theatre is an education theatre company, producing shows and delivering workshops worldwide - both online and socially distanced. 0. The English word zany derives from this persona. The exact origins of Commedia are fuzzy and hard to pin down. Another il Vecchi character is Il Dottore (The Doctor). Commedia dell’Arte is an Italian Renaissance form with many characters wearing half masks that cover the eyes, nose and top lip, leaving the mouth free to talk. , an Italian comedy tradition that was popular in the Renaissance period. Zanni (Italian: ), Zani or Zane is a character type of commedia dell'arte best known as an astute servant and a trickster. INFLUENCE ON MOLIERE. His is a quarter mask, covering nose and brow allowing the actor greater freedom in the cheeks to speak with clarity and be seen as ‘human’. Our goal is to harness the power of the mask to release the great storyteller that we all have within” Cheryl Stapleton, Artistic Director. These were either based on an individual’s habits or on interactions between particular characters that the audience would come to expect. Contrary to popular belief, commedia dell’arte was not all improvised - many aspects were thoroughly rehearsed and certain speeches were written. Commedia dell’Arte is above all street theatre, even when played indoors the style is street theatre in many ways. Commedia dell’arte is believed as a response of the crisis of economy and politics in 16th century based on the point of view of Luciano Pinto, Ferdinando Taviani and Roberto Tessari. Commedia dell’arte relied on masked stock characters who improvised dialogue within a basic, often familiar plotline or story (such as the struggles of young lovers or marital infidelity). New York Theatre Wire:"Il Dottore Explains It To Us All" by Stanley Allan Sherman, 2006 Back Stage "Commedia Tonight" by Jean Schiffman, February 26, 2007 . The 17th century was the Golden Era for Commedia dell’Arte as Italian comics dominated the European stage and the star system was born, firmly establishing acting as a legitimate trade. Part One focuses on the foundations of commedia - playing comedy. by 1bigkitty. It can also express a character's feelings, age and gender. 9th - 12th grade . There were a number of stock characters, eg Pantalone and his servant Arlecchino from the play, The Servant of Two Masters. Commedia dell’arte was an Italian form of comedy that was especially popular in the 16th to 18th centuries. YouTube. The 17th century was the Golden Era for Commedia dell’Arte as Italian comics dominated the European stage and the star system was born, firmly establishing acting as a legitimate trade. This clip from the National Theatre is a useful introduction to the world of Commedia dell’arte and shows the exaggerated body movements required from performers (subtitles are available). Feb 14, 2020 - Explore Donna Seage's board "Commedia", followed by 304 people on Pinterest. It was the famous Gelosi troupe who began a revolution in theatre by formally introducing an actress, unmasked, as a high class 1st Actress known as Innamorata : the Lover. Commedia dell'arte was an early form of professional theatre, originating from Italy, that was popular in Europe from the 16th to the 18th century. A three-week immersion in the actor-training methodology of the Dell’Arte International School of Physical Theatre, this training aims toward the creation of a dynamic theatre, in which the embodied actor plays with freedom, authenticity, and visceral power within the vibrant and poetic space of the stage. The unit culminates in a commedia performance. There are literally hundreds of character variations but it is generally recognised that there are a handful of stock character types who always appear in the plays. Commedia dell'Arte is a style of theatre which uses masked, archetypical characters to create comedic sketches, with large portions of the shows being improvised by the actors on the spot. Commedia dell’arte, having its dialogue be mainly improv, relies on movement to convey a character’s motivation. Share practice link. See more ideas about Commedia dell’arte, Teaching theatre, Theatre. The term itself (Commedia dell’arte) wasn’t put to common use until the 18th century. The term ‘commedia dell’arte’ was never used during the 16th and 17th century to describe the form - it was Carlo Goldoni who coined the phrase in his play The Comic Theatre in 1750. This program is open to all performers, with or without a college degree. Commedia dell'Arte, which translates as "professional theatre," began in Italy in the early 16th Century and quickly spread throughout Europe, creating a lasting influence on Shakespeare, Molière, opera, vaudeville, contemporary musical theatre, television sit-coms, and improv comedy. Commedia dell'Arte: The Essential Secenario - Actors Freedom Recommend books. All possessed common sense, intelligence, pride, and a love of practical jokes and intrigue. Commedia dell’Arte Physical Theatre Storytelling “Theatre is about telling stories. Print. The relationship between Basil Fawlty and Manuel in the BBC sitcom, Fawlty Towers, is reminiscent of the master-servant relationship in the Commedia dell’arte. The performances were mostly comedic with humorous violent interactions and very athletic, acrobatic manoeuvres performed by the actors. The exact origins of Commedia are fuzzy and hard to pin down. These characters appeared as the children of the Old Men: il vecchi (Pantalone and Dottore) and enabled storylines to take on new depth and complexity. Edit. In commedia, il Capitano is usually a sword-brandishing, show-off, but also often a coward when faced with danger or confrontation. But historians seem to agree on a few possibilities. It was in the court of Louis XIV that Jean-Baptiste Poquelin (Molière) discovered Commedia dell’Arte. Commedia Collection by Donna Seage. The. For more articles and review by Stanley Allan Sherman Mask Arts Company blog Numerous variations of Il Capitano can be found in commedia scenarios - sometimes he is masked, sometimes unmasked; sometimes he is an incompetent phoney, sometimes a wealthy and eligible suitor. — Simon Callow, in the preface to The Comic Mask in the Commedia dell’Arte by A. Fava, 2007. The commedia dell’arte also, like the puppet theatre where this is common, focused the dramatic action on the central role of a leading comic character, or on a pair of zanni. The origins of Pantalone can be charted back to The Old Miser who featured in the Roman plays of Plautus. What is Commedia dell’arte? All possessed common sense, intelligence, pride, and a love of practical jokes and intrigue. Zanni were valet buffoons, clowns, and knavish jacks-of-all-trades. For the character of zanni, the actor wore a mask, often with a long nose (it is thought that the longer the nose, the more dim-witted the character). Pantalone is one such money-hungry boss who appeared in the productions by Venetian players. It is the basis of all comedy, including all tv sitcoms. So, improvisation was important in the advent ... Created/last updated on: 03/04/2018 - 14:10. The slap stick. We will learn that a lot of what we have learned about “strait acting” does not apply to Commedia dell’Arte. The Commedia dell’Arte emerged in the second half of the 16th century in Italy. Print. Originators of the Scaramouche character; Italians performing in France had to overcome language barrier. Perhaps a cause for the expressive physicality of Commedia Dell’Arte Comédie-Italienne, the Italian commedia dell’arte as it was called in France. — Mel Gordon, Lazzi: The Comic Routines of the Commedia dell’Arte, If you are researching Commedia dell’Arte, check out our Resources page for a list of links to other useful websites. Commedia dell'Arte is a type of comedy developed in 16th and 17th century Italy, characterized by improvised text based on plot outlines (scenarios). This book by Fava, one of the few living master teachers of “Commedia dell’Arte”, is the first aesthetic and methodological study of the traditional Italian theater form – the first to describe, in a precise and practical way, what Commedia is and what it should be. Invaluable as a training method for all performers, commedia dell’arte helps to unlock inhibitions through the security of the mask, teaching performers how to control and maintain their physical presence, audience relationship and stage energy. 2 years ago. Commedia Dell’Arte is a theatre history unit mixed with improvisation, physicalization, and exploring specific characters. It is a masked form of physical theatre that involves broad comedy and highly structured improvisation. Commedia Dell'Arte Theatre 2/3 DRAFT. Shakespeare took direct inspiration from commedia dell’arte for many of his plays. Examples of indoor stages Baldracca. If you would like to find out more about our work or how we could work with you, do drop us a line or give us a ring: info@learningthroughtheatre.co.uk+44 (0)7932 067585. Commedia dell’arte was established in Italy during the 16th century. Masks were originally all made of leather, but now more commonly made of neoprene. Save. Commedia dell’arte is a style of theatre that was popular in Italy during the 1500’s. Routledge, 2015. Read about our approach to external linking. Masks, props, acrobatics, songs, dance and music were key features of this comic style, known by many different names, such as, Commedia degli Zanni, Commedia all Improvviso, Commedia della Maschere. Wearing period costume affects movement too. Traveling Commedia dell'Arte Troupes used theaters where they found them, sometimes would help create them, and sometimes would have to make do without them. INFLUENCE ON MOLIERE. To play this quiz, please finish editing it. Commedia dell’arte is a 16th century masked acting form. It was a theatrical spectacle stemming from the French pantomime in which actors would portray certain characters who have predetermined traits. To that end, this unit is divided into two parts. In 1547 the Medici built a public theatre, the Baldracca, as a venue for professional entertainers traveling to … Although the origins of this type of theatre are not precisely clear, tradition says that it was from ancient Greek […] Commedia dell’arte took a series of “stock characters” that were recognized by their hand made masks and performed improvised but memorized scenario plays. Shared theatre space with the Italian Players at Theatre du Petit-Bourbon. Each commedia character has a specific physical shape and way of moving. In this unit, we’re going to focus on three main aspects: (1) Causes and Effects of Commedia (History), (2) Stock Characters, (3) Commedia Performance Practices. In the beginning, Commedia was most likely a past-time for members of local guilds of tradesmen and their families as a post-work form of entertainment. The way that you move on stage plays a key part in mime, dance and Physical theatre. The style of Commedia Dell’ Arte traces back its origin from the “Black Death,” a renaissance plague. Commedia dell’ arte was first discovered in the 16th Century in Italy where professional actors who were highly skilled in acrobatics and “slapstick” style of comedy would perform improvised scenarios for the masses in and outside the theatre! The comedy of these early plays relied on crude and often violent humour between the zanni. Its roots are in Greek and Roman comedy, but when it emerged in Tuscany in about 1550, it quickly developed a style all its own. were hugely, if not entirely dependent on movement, such as Arlecchino catching and eating a fly in a stylised way, pretending to be a statue as a way of hiding, or getting beaten round the head by his master. Master the fundamentals of Commedia dell’Arte and explore its relationship to the British stage and traditional European theatre with Olly Crick. This quiz is incomplete! Commedia dell'arte masks are one of the most integral aspects of each stock character. Commedia dell’ Arte originated in Italy in the 16th century. There is not much documented previous to the 16th century. Different social classes were able to witness the said plays performed by some Italian street performers. Il Capitano was introduced as another stock character; a stranger from out of town, usually a military man from Spain, who boasts of battles and victories. Arlecchino’s posture and rhythm come from two animal sources: a chicken or chick, and a cat. Finish Editing. The National Theatre YouTube channel features content for teachers and students, including hundreds of videos about making theatre, with additional content to support texts on the English curriculum. tags: commedia-dell-arte. There were a number of stock characters, eg Pantalone and his servant Arlecchino from the play. The influence of Commedia dell’Arte can be traced throughout the history of comedy. Through time, the Zanni grew to be a popular figure who was first seen in commedia as early as the 14th century. The first performance recorded was in 1545. Commedia dell’arte is an improvised comedic theatre form that flourished in Italy in the 1500’s. Credit: Piccolo Teatro di Milano/photo Ciminaghi, This clip from the National Theatre is a useful introduction to the world of. Commedia dell’arte is an improvised comedic theatre form that flourished in Italy in the 1500’s. Gli Innamorati (Italian: [ʎ innamoˈraːti], meaning "The Lovers") were stock characters within the theatre style known as commedia dell'arte, which appeared in 16th century Italy.In the plays, everything revolved around the Lovers in some regard. Delete Quiz. February 25th is International Commedia dell’Arte Day. In my new book Unmasking the Mask: Insights from Physical Theatre and Life, I describe how we see a PRISM for each character: Posture, Rhythm, Inner Soul and Mask. The main focus of these plays was themed around love intrigues and money tricks. ©"2016DeirdreMarshall"forHomunculus"Theatre"Co."! Pantalone’s mask usually bears a hook nose, wrinkled lines and pursed lips and is typically played as an old, arthritic man who wrings his hands and protects his purse at all costs. There is not much documented previous to the 16th century. Zanni were valet buffoons, clowns, and knavish jacks-of-all-trades. Looking ahead to our opera, Il Tirinto, you will recognize most these “types” in the cast of characters. The lynch-pin of the merchant class at this time was the - then - much despised Jewish community. This later evolved into Pantomime. , often quarrelsome, cowardly, envious, spiteful, vindictive, and a cat featuring Harlequin Columbine! Italian Players at theatre du Petit-Bourbon character 's feelings, age and gender having dialogue... S handbook dance and physical theatre, we make world-class theatre that involves broad comedy and highly structured improvisation,! Credit: Piccolo Teatro di Milano/photo Ciminaghi, this unit is divided into parts! Performed by the actors with Didi Hopkins of Commediaworks master for the zanni grew to become one of the is!: commedia dell ’ arte is a 16th century in Italy during the 16th 18th! A legitimate profession improvised - many aspects were thoroughly rehearsed and certain speeches were written use the! 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